Boot Ubuntu From GRUB – Easy Step-by-Step Guide

  • By: iasptkcom
  • Date: December 16, 2023
  • Time to read: 19 min.

Welcome to our easy step-by-step guide on how to boot Ubuntu from GRUB. GRUB 2 is the default bootloader for Ubuntu, allowing you to choose and boot into Ubuntu and other operating systems installed on your computer. Understanding how to navigate the GRUB bootloader and configure your boot options is essential for a smooth and efficient Ubuntu boot process.

how to boot ubuntu from grub

In this article, we will walk you through the process of booting Ubuntu from GRUB, covering topics such as installing Ubuntu with GRUB 2, reinstalling GRUB 2, configuring GRUB 2, troubleshooting common boot problems, and more. Whether you are new to Ubuntu or an experienced user, this guide will provide you with the knowledge and tools you need to effectively manage your Ubuntu boot options.

Key Takeaways:

  • GRUB 2 is the default bootloader for Ubuntu.
  • Understanding how to boot Ubuntu from GRUB is essential for managing your Ubuntu boot options.
  • You can install Ubuntu with GRUB 2 during the initial installation process.
  • If your GRUB 2 installation becomes corrupted or you are unable to boot into Ubuntu, you can reinstall GRUB 2 using various methods.
  • GRUB 2 allows you to configure various settings to customize your boot experience.

Installing Ubuntu with GRUB 2 Initial Installation

When it comes to installing Ubuntu, the process is made seamless with GRUB 2 as the default bootloader. During the installation, you have the option to install Ubuntu on the entire drive or choose a specific partition. Rest assured, GRUB 2 will be installed in the appropriate locations to ensure smooth and successful booting into Ubuntu.

Whether you’re a first-time Ubuntu user or an experienced Linux enthusiast, the Ubuntu installation process with GRUB 2 maintains simplicity and efficiency. By following a few steps, you’ll be up and running in no time. Let’s dive into the installation process and get you started with Ubuntu.

During the Ubuntu installation, you’ll encounter a prompt that allows you to select the installation type. Here, you can choose between installing Ubuntu alongside an existing operating system, erasing the disk and installing Ubuntu, or manually configuring partitions. By selecting the most appropriate option for your needs, you can proceed with installing Ubuntu on your system.

Once you’ve made your selection and confirmed the installation location, the Ubuntu installer will proceed to install the necessary files and configure GRUB 2 as the bootloader. Rest assured, GRUB 2 will be installed in the appropriate locations to ensure the seamless booting of your Ubuntu system.

After the installation is complete, you’ll be prompted to restart your system. Upon rebooting, GRUB 2 will take charge, presenting you with the option to boot into Ubuntu or any other available operating systems on your system.

Installing Ubuntu with GRUB 2 enables a hassle-free experience, providing you with a stable and reliable bootloader for your Ubuntu system. Stay tuned for the next sections where we’ll explore more about GRUB 2 and its capabilities.

Reinstalling GRUB 2

If your GRUB 2 installation becomes corrupted or if you are unable to boot into Ubuntu, don’t worry. There are several methods to reinstall GRUB 2 and get your system back up and running smoothly. Let’s explore some of these methods:

1. Using the Boot-Repair Graphical Tool

The Boot-Repair graphical tool is a handy tool that can fix various GRUB 2 problems. It provides a user-friendly interface to reinstall GRUB 2 and solve boot-related issues. Here’s how to use it:

  1. Launch the Boot-Repair tool on your Ubuntu system.
  2. Follow the on-screen instructions to scan for and repair GRUB 2 problems.
  3. Once the repair process is complete, restart your computer and check if the issue is resolved.

Using the Boot-Repair graphical tool is an effective way to automate the reinstallation process and fix a broken system.

2. Using GRUB2 Rescue Mode or LiveCD Terminal

If you prefer a manual approach to reinstall GRUB 2, you can use the GRUB2 Rescue mode or the LiveCD terminal. Here’s how:

  1. Boot your computer using a Ubuntu LiveCD or Live USB.
  2. Open a terminal and enter the following commands:

sudo mount /dev/sdX /mnt

sudo grub-install --root-directory=/mnt /dev/sdX

Replace /dev/sdX with the appropriate device identifier for your system.

  1. Restart your computer and check if GRUB 2 has been successfully reinstalled.

Reinstalling GRUB 2 manually using the rescue mode or the LiveCD terminal gives you more control over the process and can be useful if you encounter specific issues.

Remember to backup your important data before attempting any reinstallation methods to avoid data loss.

Configuring GRUB 2

GRUB 2 offers a range of configuration options that allow you to customize your booting experience and tailor it to your specific needs. By adjusting settings such as the default boot entry, boot display behavior, password protection, and custom menu entries, you can optimize GRUB 2 to work seamlessly with your Ubuntu system.

To configure GRUB 2, you need to edit the /etc/default/grub file. You can do this by opening a terminal and running the following command:

sudo nano /etc/default/grub

This will open the grub file in the nano editor, where you can make your desired changes. For example, if you want to change the default boot entry, locate the line that starts with “GRUB_DEFAULT=“. By default, it is set to “0” which represents the first entry in the menu. You can change this to the desired value, such as “1” for the second entry.

Note: The numbering starts from zero, so the first entry is 0, the second entry is 1, and so on.

In addition to the default boot entry, you can also configure the boot display behavior. You can choose whether to display the GRUB menu or hide it, as well as set a specific timeout value for the menu to be shown. This can be useful if you have multiple operating systems installed and want to quickly select the desired option without waiting for the menu to appear.

Another configuration option is password protection. With GRUB 2, you can set a password to prevent unauthorized access to the GRUB menu or to restrict access to specific menu items. This adds an extra layer of security to your system.

Note: It is recommended to use a strong password and keep it secure to ensure the integrity of your system.

Finally, GRUB 2 allows you to create custom menu entries. This can be helpful if you have special configurations or alternative boot options that you frequently use. By adding custom menu entries, you can easily access these options directly from the GRUB menu.

After making the desired changes in the /etc/default/grub file, you need to apply them by running the following command in the terminal:

sudo update-grub

This command will update the GRUB configuration based on the changes you made in the file. Once the update is complete, the new settings will take effect the next time you boot your system.

Troubleshooting GRUB 2

If you encounter boot problems or issues with GRUB 2, there are troubleshooting steps you can take to resolve them. These include fixing reboot/shutdown freezes, changing display settings, resolving issues with themes, and reinstalling/moving GRUB2. Troubleshooting GRUB 2 can help ensure smooth and reliable booting of your Ubuntu system.

If you experience reboot or shutdown freezes when attempting to boot Ubuntu from GRUB 2, there are a few potential solutions. You can try disabling any unnecessary peripherals or hardware, as they may be causing conflicts during the boot process. Additionally, updating your kernel or making changes to the boot options in GRUB 2’s configuration file (/boot/grub/grub.cfg) can help resolve freezing issues.

Another common troubleshooting step is to change display settings in GRUB 2. If you are experiencing display issues during the boot process, such as a blank screen or distorted graphics, you can try modifying the GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT parameter in the /etc/default/grub file. This allows you to set specific display options or resolutions that are compatible with your system.

Issues with themes can also impact the boot process in GRUB 2. If you have recently installed or modified a theme, it may be causing compatibility problems. To troubleshoot this, you can revert to the default GRUB 2 theme by removing or disabling any custom themes in the /boot/grub/themes directory. Alternatively, you can manually edit the theme configuration files to fix any errors or conflicts.

If all else fails, reinstalling or moving GRUB2 can help resolve persistent boot problems. You can use the Boot-Repair graphical tool mentioned earlier, which can automatically detect and fix common GRUB 2 issues. Alternatively, you can utilize the GRUB2 Rescue mode or the LiveCD terminal to manually reinstall GRUB2.

Troubleshooting GRUB 2 can help ensure that your Ubuntu system boots properly and without any issues. By following these troubleshooting steps, you can address common boot problems and enjoy a seamless experience with GRUB 2.

IssueTroubleshooting Steps
Reboot/Shutdown freezesDisable unnecessary peripherals or hardware
Update kernel
Modify boot options in GRUB 2 configuration file
Display issuesChange display settings in GRUB 2
Modify GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT parameter in /etc/default/grub
Issues with themesRevert to default GRUB 2 theme
Remove or disable custom themes
Manually edit theme configuration files
Persistent boot problemsUse Boot-Repair graphical tool
Utilize GRUB2 Rescue mode or LiveCD terminal
Reinstall or move GRUB2

Booting an ISO from GRUB 2

GRUB 2 provides a convenient way to boot ISO files directly from your hard drive, eliminating the need for burning CDs or DVDs. By creating a menuentry in the GRUB 2 configuration, you can easily boot into an ISO file and utilize its contents without the hassle of physical media.

This feature is especially useful when you want to boot Ubuntu LiveCD ISOs or other Linux distributions and rescue CDs. Instead of going through the process of preparing external media, you can simply configure GRUB 2 to directly load the ISO file from your hard drive.

To achieve this, you need to add a menuentry to the GRUB 2 configuration file, /etc/grub.d/40_custom, specifying the path to the ISO file and necessary boot parameters. This allows GRUB 2 to recognize the ISO file as a bootable option in the menu.

Note: You can use the ls command within GRUB’s command-line interface to locate the partition and directory where the ISO file is stored.

Once you have added the menuentry, run the sudo update-grub command to generate a new GRUB 2 configuration file with the ISO file included in the boot menu.

Now, when you start your computer and access the GRUB bootloader, you will see the ISO file listed as a boot option. Simply select the ISO entry, and GRUB 2 will boot into the ISO, allowing you to use its contents as if you had booted from a physical disc.

Example Menuentry:

MenuentryDescription
menuentry "Ubuntu LiveCD" {
set isofile="/path/to/ubuntu.iso"
loopback loop $isofile
linux (loop)/casper/vmlinuz boot=casper iso-scan/filename=$isofile quiet splash
initrd (loop)/casper/initrd}
This menuentry example shows how to boot an Ubuntu LiveCD ISO file.

Remember to replace /path/to/ubuntu.iso with the actual path to your ISO file.

By leveraging the power of GRUB 2, you can easily boot ISO files, allowing for a more efficient and flexible way to access different operating systems and rescue utilities.

Security in GRUB 2

GRUB 2 provides robust security features to protect your Ubuntu system from unauthorized access. By configuring specific security settings, you can prevent unauthorized booting via the GRUB command-line.

Preventing Booting via GRUB Command-Line

To enhance the security of your system, you can take measures to prevent booting via the GRUB command-line. This ensures that only authorized users can access and boot into your Ubuntu system.

One effective method is to set password protection for menu editing and access to the GRUB 2 terminal. By setting a strong password, you can restrict unauthorized users from making changes to the system configuration.

For example, you can use the following GRUB configuration settings to enforce password protection:

set superusers="admin"
password_admin=password_here

By defining a superuser and setting a password, you can ensure that only authorized users can access the GRUB menu and make changes. This adds an extra layer of security to your Ubuntu system.

Additionally, you should maintain strict control over physical access to your computer. By protecting the physical hardware, you can prevent unauthorized individuals from attempting to access the bootloader or the GRUB command-line.

Implementing these security measures helps safeguard the integrity and safety of your Ubuntu system, ensuring that only authorized users can boot into your system and make changes.

GRUB vs GRUB 2

When it comes to bootloaders, GRUB and GRUB 2 are two well-known options for Ubuntu users. GRUB 2, which is the improved version of the original GRUB bootloader, offers several enhancements and features compared to its predecessor.

One of the notable differences between GRUB and GRUB 2 is the support for scripting. In GRUB 2, users can take advantage of scripting capabilities, allowing for more flexibility and customization options when it comes to booting their Ubuntu system.

Another significant improvement in GRUB 2 is the dynamic module loading feature. With this feature, GRUB 2 can load necessary modules on-demand, optimizing the boot process and reducing the need for unnecessary module loading.

GRUB 2 also introduces a rescue mode, which is a valuable tool for troubleshooting and fixing boot-related issues. In rescue mode, users can access a command-line interface to repair the GRUB 2 installation or recover the system if it fails to boot.

Customization options are expanded in GRUB 2, with the introduction of custom menus and themes. Users can create custom menu entries to easily select specific configurations, operating systems, or utility CDs during the boot process. Additionally, themes can be applied to enhance the graphical appearance of the boot menu.

A graphical boot menu is another feature introduced in GRUB 2. It provides a visually appealing interface for users to select the desired boot option, making the boot process more user-friendly and intuitive.

For users considering an upgrade from GRUB to GRUB 2, there are numerous benefits to be gained. GRUB 2 offers better performance, increased flexibility, and a richer feature set compared to the original GRUB bootloader.

In conclusion, GRUB 2 is the recommended choice for Ubuntu users due to its numerous enhancements and features compared to GRUB. Whether you’re customizing your bootloader, troubleshooting boot issues, or seeking a more modern and efficient booting experience, upgrading to GRUB 2 can provide improved performance and flexibility for your Ubuntu system.

Upgrading to GRUB 2 From GRUB

If you are still using the legacy GRUB bootloader, it’s time to upgrade to GRUB 2 and unlock a world of new features and improvements. The upgrade process is essential to ensure compatibility with the latest Ubuntu releases and to take full advantage of the advanced capabilities offered by GRUB 2.

To initiate the upgrade, you have two main options:

  1. Install the GRUB 2 package (grub-pc): By installing the grub-pc package, you can replace the legacy GRUB with GRUB 2. This can be done using the package management system of your Ubuntu distribution.

    Note: Make sure to back up your important data before proceeding with any system changes.

  2. Update to a newer version of Ubuntu: If you are running an older version of Ubuntu, upgrading to a newer release will automatically update your bootloader to GRUB 2. This can be easily done through the Update Manager or by using the command line.

    Note: Always ensure that you have a stable internet connection and a backup of your important files before performing any system updates.

Upgrading to GRUB 2 from GRUB not only enhances the performance and flexibility of your Ubuntu system, but it also brings you closer to the vibrant and constantly evolving Ubuntu community. Take the leap and embrace the power of GRUB 2 as you embark on a seamless, and robust booting experience.

File Structure in GRUB 2

GRUB 2, the successor to the original GRUB bootloader, introduces a revised file structure that is essential to understand for efficient navigation and customization of your bootloader. Let’s explore the important folders and configuration files in GRUB 2.

/etc/grub.d

The /etc/grub.d folder contains the main GRUB 2 scripts. These scripts play a crucial role in generating the GRUB 2 configuration file, grub.cfg. By modifying these scripts, you can add or remove menu entries and customize the behavior of your GRUB 2 menu.

/boot/grub

The /boot/grub folder houses the GRUB 2 modules and the menu file, grub.cfg. The modules complement the core functionality of GRUB 2, providing support for various file systems and hardware configurations. The grub.cfg file serves as the main configuration file for GRUB 2, listing the available boot options and controlling the display behavior of the GRUB 2 menu.

/etc/default/grub

The /etc/default/grub file contains the global settings for GRUB 2. Here, you can make configuration changes such as setting the default boot entry, configuring the appearance of the GRUB 2 menu, and enabling or disabling specific features. By editing this file, you have full control over the behavior and appearance of your GRUB 2 menu.

/etc/grub.d (custom scripts)

In addition to the main GRUB 2 scripts, the /etc/grub.d folder also allows you to create custom scripts. These custom scripts can be used to add specific functionality or configure additional options in your GRUB 2 menu. By leveraging custom scripts, you can extend the capabilities of GRUB 2 to meet your specific needs and preferences.

Understanding the file structure in GRUB 2 empowers you to navigate seamlessly, customize your bootloader, and tailor it to your requirements. Now that you have familiarized yourself with the crucial folders and configuration files in GRUB 2, you are ready to optimize your Ubuntu booting experience.

Boot Display Behavior in GRUB 2

When it comes to booting your Ubuntu system using GRUB 2, you have the flexibility to customize the boot display behavior. GRUB 2 offers various options that allow you to tailor the appearance of your GRUB 2 menu and enhance your booting experience.

Firstly, you have the choice of how the menu is displayed. You can choose to hide the GRUB 2 menu altogether for a cleaner boot experience, or you can choose to have the menu shown on your screen for a specific amount of time before the system automatically boots into the default selection.

In addition, GRUB 2 provides a countdown timer feature. This timer visually displays the time remaining until the default selection is automatically chosen and the system boots. This provides users with a convenient and clear indication of when the boot process will commence.

Configuring the boot display behavior in GRUB 2 allows you to create a personalized and visually appealing menu that suits your preferences and needs. Whether you prefer a minimalist approach with a hidden menu, or if you want visual feedback with a countdown timer, GRUB 2 offers the flexibility to customize the boot display behavior according to your liking.

Boot Display Behavior OptionsDescription
Hide MenuChoose to hide the GRUB 2 menu for a cleaner boot experience.
Show MenuDisplay the GRUB 2 menu on your screen for a specific amount of time before automatically booting into the default selection.
Countdown TimerEnable a countdown timer that visually indicates the time remaining until the default selection is chosen and the system boots.

Custom Menu Entries in GRUB 2

GRUB 2 offers a powerful feature that allows you to create custom menu entries, giving you the ability to add additional options to the main menu. These custom entries can include other operating systems, utility CDs, or specific configurations that you frequently use. By adding custom menu entries, you can easily access and boot into your desired options directly from the GRUB 2 menu.

To create custom menu entries in GRUB 2, you can use the 40_custom file located in the /etc/grub.d directory. This file serves as a template for adding your own entries to the menu. Each entry consists of a series of commands and configurations that define how the option will appear and function in the menu.

Here is an example of a custom menu entry for booting an alternate operating system:

menuentry 'Windows 10' {
    insmod part_msdos
    insmod ntfs
    set root='hd0,msdos1'
    chainloader +1
}
  

In the above example, the menu entry is titled ‘Windows 10’. The ‘insmod’ commands load the necessary modules to access the Windows partition, while the ‘set root’ command specifies the location of the partition. The ‘chainloader’ command instructs GRUB 2 to load the Windows bootloader from the specified partition, allowing you to boot into Windows from the GRUB 2 menu.

Once you have created your custom menu entry in the 40_custom file, you can generate a new GRUB 2 configuration file by running the ‘sudo update-grub’ command. This will update the main menu and include your custom entry, making it accessible when you boot your system.

By taking advantage of GRUB 2’s custom menu entries, you can personalize your boot experience and easily access your desired options directly from the GRUB 2 menu.

Miscellaneous Features in GRUB 2

GRUB 2 is not just a simple bootloader; it offers a host of miscellaneous features that can enhance your booting experience and provide additional functionality. By utilizing these features, you can maximize the capabilities of GRUB 2 and customize it to suit your specific needs. Let’s explore some of the notable miscellaneous features in GRUB 2.

Booting from a Serial Console

GRUB 2 supports booting from a serial console, allowing you to interact with your system through a serial connection. This is particularly useful in server environments or situations where a graphical interface is not available. By configuring the appropriate settings, you can access GRUB 2 and manage your system remotely.

Booting FreeBSD and NetBSD

GRUB 2 is not limited to just booting Ubuntu; it also supports booting other operating systems like FreeBSD and NetBSD. With the multi-boot capabilities of GRUB 2, you can have a single bootloader that allows you to boot into various operating systems installed on your machine. This provides convenience and flexibility, especially for users who work with different operating systems.

Chainloading and Multiboot

GRUB 2 enables chainloading and multiboot functionality, which allows you to boot other bootloaders or operating systems directly from GRUB 2. This means you can integrate GRUB 2 with another bootloader installed on your system and seamlessly switch between different boot environments. Whether you want to boot a different Linux distribution or even Windows, GRUB 2 has you covered.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AWoEiyAufdY

By taking advantage of these miscellaneous features in GRUB 2, you can harness the power and flexibility of this robust bootloader. Whether it’s booting from a serial console, supporting other operating systems, or chainloading bootloaders, GRUB 2 offers a wide range of options to customize and optimize your booting experience.

Conclusion

In conclusion, GRUB 2 is the default bootloader for Ubuntu, offering advanced features and flexibility for booting your system. By following our step-by-step guide and utilizing the various configuration options and troubleshooting techniques, you can ensure a smooth and reliable booting experience for your Ubuntu system.

Take advantage of the customization options in GRUB 2 to tailor your bootloader to your specific needs. You can configure settings such as the default boot entry, boot display behavior, password protection, and custom menu entries. These features allow you to personalize your boot menu and make it more efficient.

Additionally, GRUB 2 provides security measures to protect against unauthorized access. By configuring specific security settings and setting password protection, you can enhance the integrity and safety of your Ubuntu system.

In summary, GRUB 2 is a powerful bootloader that offers customization, security, and ease of use. By familiarizing yourself with its features and following our guide, you can optimize your booting process and enjoy a seamless experience with Ubuntu.

FAQ

How do I boot Ubuntu from GRUB?

To boot Ubuntu from GRUB, follow these steps:
1. Power on your computer and wait for the GRUB menu to appear.
2. Use the arrow keys to select the Ubuntu option.
3. Press Enter to boot Ubuntu.

What are the boot options in Ubuntu?

The boot options in Ubuntu allow you to customize the boot process. Some of the common boot options include:
– Safe Mode: Boots Ubuntu with the basic drivers and services.
– Recovery Mode: Boots Ubuntu into a troubleshooting environment.
– Advanced Options: Provides additional boot options and recovery tools.

What is the GRUB bootloader?

The GRUB (Grand Unified Bootloader) is a bootloader used in Ubuntu and other Linux distributions. It is responsible for loading the operating system and providing a boot menu for selecting different boot options.

How does the Ubuntu boot process work with GRUB?

The Ubuntu boot process starts with the computer’s BIOS/UEFI, which loads the GRUB bootloader. GRUB then presents the user with a menu of available operating systems, including Ubuntu. Upon selecting Ubuntu, GRUB loads the necessary files and hands over control to the Ubuntu kernel, which initializes the system and starts the Ubuntu operating system.

How can I fix a broken Ubuntu system using GRUB 2?

If your Ubuntu system becomes broken and you are unable to boot, you can use GRUB 2 to fix it. You can reinstall GRUB 2 using tools like Boot-Repair, or you can manually reinstall GRUB 2 using the GRUB2 Rescue mode or the LiveCD terminal. These methods can help restore the ability to boot into Ubuntu.

How can I configure GRUB 2?

GRUB 2 can be configured by editing the /etc/default/grub file. You can change settings such as the default boot entry, boot display behavior, and enable password protection. After making changes, use the update-grub command to apply them. Custom menu entries can also be added in the /etc/grub.d directory.

What are some common issues with GRUB 2 and how can I troubleshoot them?

Some common issues with GRUB 2 include reboot/shutdown freezes, display issues, theme problems, and GRUB 2 not loading. To troubleshoot these issues, you can try changing display settings, reinstalling GRUB 2, or using the GRUB2 Rescue mode. These troubleshooting steps can help resolve boot problems and restore functionality.

How can I boot an ISO file from GRUB 2?

To boot an ISO file from GRUB 2, you can create a menuentry in the GRUB 2 configuration. This allows you to boot into an ISO file directly from your hard drive without the need for burning a CD or DVD. This is useful for booting Ubuntu LiveCD ISOs or other Linux distributions and rescue CDs.

How can I improve the security in GRUB 2?

GRUB 2 offers security features that can protect your system. You can configure settings to prevent booting via the GRUB command-line and set password protection for menu editing and terminal access. These security measures help ensure the integrity and safety of your Ubuntu system.

What are the differences between GRUB and GRUB 2?

GRUB 2 is an improved version of the original GRUB bootloader. It offers enhancements such as scripting support, dynamic module loading, rescue mode, custom menus, themes, and graphical boot menu support. Upgrading to GRUB 2 from GRUB can provide better performance and flexibility for your Ubuntu system.

How can I upgrade from GRUB to GRUB 2?

To upgrade from GRUB to GRUB 2, you can install the GRUB 2 package (grub-pc) or update to a newer version of Ubuntu that includes GRUB 2. The upgrade process allows you to take advantage of the new features and improvements in GRUB 2 and ensure compatibility with the latest Ubuntu releases.

What is the file structure in GRUB 2?

GRUB 2 has a revised file structure compared to the original GRUB. Important folders include /etc/grub.d, which contains the main GRUB 2 scripts, and /boot/grub, which contains the GRUB 2 modules and the menu file (grub.cfg). Configuration changes are made in /etc/default/grub and custom scripts can be added in /etc/grub.d.

How can I configure the boot display behavior in GRUB 2?

GRUB 2 allows you to customize the boot display behavior. You can choose how the menu is displayed, whether it is hidden or shown for a specific amount of time. GRUB 2 can also display a countdown timer to provide visual feedback on the time remaining until the default selection is chosen.

How can I create custom menu entries in GRUB 2?

GRUB 2 allows you to create custom menu entries that will be added to the main menu. This is useful for adding other operating systems, utility CDs, or specific configurations to the GRUB 2 menu. You can use the 40_custom file in the /etc/grub.d directory as a template for creating custom menus.

What are some miscellaneous features in GRUB 2?

GRUB 2 offers various miscellaneous features, such as booting from a serial console, booting FreeBSD, NetBSD, and chainloading or multiboot operating systems. Familiarizing yourself with these features allows you to take full advantage of GRUB 2’s capabilities.

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